The major types of salt in China include sea salt, lake salt solar saltand mined salt. There are salt plants in China, with an annual production capacity of million tons of iodized salt. According to the Ministry of Health, in the total production reached million tons, of which million tons were sold.
Following the National IDD control program, the state of Orissa enforced universal salt iodization, under which the entire population is to receive exclusively iodized salt.
No systematic survey has been carried out to assess the iodine status of tribal communities, who are the socioeconomically deprived and nutritionally vulnerable sections of the society.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the IDD in children and to assess community awareness and perception of iodized salt in Niyamgiri hill region of Rayagada district, which is the abode of Dongria Kondh, a primitive tribal group.
A total of school-age children of years were examined clinically for goiter and iodine contents of urine and drinking water samples measured by standard methods. The iodine concentrations for water samples were in the range of 1. The prevalence of IDD was a moderate public health problem with poor community knowledge and environmental deficiency of iodine.
This indicates the need of effective monitoring and intensive IEC to ensure accessibility of quality iodized salt at affordable price in remote tribal pockets as an essential public health responsibility in attaining the goal of sustainable IDD elimination. Introduction Iodine is an essential trace element for synthesis of the thyroid hormones; thyroxine T 4 and triiodothyronine T3 are necessary for normal growth, development and functioning of the brain and body Glinoer, All the T4, but only about one-fifth of the T3 is produced by the thyroid gland and the remainder of the T3 is produced through the extra thyroidal deiodination of T4.
Diet deficient in iodine is associated with a wide spectrum of Prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders, collectively called iodine deficiency disorders IDD Hetzel, These include goiter of all ages, hypothyroidism, cretinism, congenital anomalies, neurological dysfunction, impaired reproduction, still birth and spontaneous Proceeding of National Symposium on Tribal Health abortion Delange, ; de Benoist et al, ; de Benoist et al, Communities living in iodine-deficient environments lead major block to their human and social development Hetzel, Correction of the iodine deficiency indicated a major contribution to human development.
Iodine deficiency remained as the first important preventable cause of mental retardation, brain damage and diminished IQ in the world even today Qian et al, ; Anderson et al, Among all interventions, salt iodization is proven to be the cost-effective sustainable strategy for eliminating IDD WHO, ; Houston, Iodine deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in India Padav and Kochupillai, As of now no single state is free from ill effects of IDD, surveys conducted in various states continuously recognizing new pockets of iodine deficiency Toteja et al, ; Kapil and Singh, Estimated million people are at risk for IDD in India, among which 54 million have goiter and over 8 million have neurologic handicaps Kochupillai, Universal Salt Iodisation USI, is the primary strategy for IDD elimination byunder which the entire population of the country is to receive edible salt with a minimum of 15 ppm of iodine Tiwari, Ray, Malhotra, In all states and Union Territories except Kerala and Gujarat, there is ban on the sale of non-iodised salt for human consumption.
This act served as a catalyst for achieving the high coverage in the household consumption of iodized salt in India Government of India, Earlier surveys conducted by the central IDD survey team in Orissa reported that 2 out of 13 districts surveyed were endemic with goiter prevalence Over the past decade studies have been conducted on the prevalence of IDD in different states Government of India,; Mohapatra, ; National Institute of Nutrition, ; Sahu et al, ; Government of Orissa, The state government had issued a notification on the complete ban on the sale and import of non-iodized salt since In post-salt iodization phase, endemic goitre and associated IDD are widely prevalent.
On region-basis, iodine deficiency is more pronounced in districts having predominantly tribal population Sahu et al, ; Joshi et al, There were significant differences in consumption of iodized salt between tribal and non-tribal groups. The tribal populations continued to use salt with inadequate iodine.
Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the iodine status of a classical tribal community in Rayagada districts. Material and methods Orissa is the tenth largest state in India with an area of 1. The state ranks second after Madhya Pradesh in terms of tribal concentration for having 62 tribal and 13 primitive tribal groups, who are the most underprivileged section of society Government of India, Bulliyya et al The tribal population constitutes Study design The study was a cross-sectional field-based survey carried out in The study population consisted of school age children ranging from 6 to 12 years in the community.
Children in this age group preferred throughout world to bring uniformity in the results and comparability in the magnitude of the problem and also to assess the impact of interventions to prevent IDD.
Informed consent was obtained from the village heads and family heads for children. Sample size A sample size was determined for study area using the formula for cluster surveys in developing countries Steve et al, This gave the sample size required to be All the Dongria Kondh inhabited villages were enlisted with their population.
Thirty villages were selected from the total list using population proportionate to size PPS technique. List of all villages and their population in each block was obtained from the DKDA office.
The cumulative population of all villages in each block was computed. A sampling interval was calculated by dividing the total cumulative population of all the villages by the number of village clusters required.Micronutrient malnutrition is the term now commonly used to refer to the three main vitamin or mineral deficiencies of public health significance: iron deficiency anaemia, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and vitamin A deficiency.
The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) recommend a slightly higher iodine intake for pregnant women of mcg per day [3,7].
The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency and associated factors among pregnant women in Ada district, Oromia region, Ethiopia.
Method: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of Ada district, October to November, lectively named as “iodine deficiency disorders (IDD. The prevalence of iodine deficiency in Europe was reduced by 30 percent from to , but 44 percent of school-age children still have insufficient iodine intake.
as part of a project to eradicate iodine deficiency disorders. Urinary iodine was lower than and 50 mcg/L in and percent of samples, respectively.
Feb 19, · Population effects of severe iodine deficiency, termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), include endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, decreased fertility rate, increased infant mortality, and mental retardation.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this Iodine Deficiency Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Most preventable cause of mental retardation in the world Keith P. West, Jr., DrPH Prevalence of Goiter Before/After Salt Iodization Programs 3 5.