Resources for License Instruction Here's a colllection of resources to help you with your instruction of Amateur Radio license exam preparation. Instructor Guide and the PowerPoint lesson modules can be found here. You'll find ARRL publications, as well as other ARRL materials, such as graphics files from our publications, availalble for you to download and incorporate in your instructional materials.
Background[ edit ] Historical development of the electricity grid[ edit ] The first alternating current power grid system was installed in in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In the 20th century local grids grew over time, and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons.
By the s, the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature and highly interconnected, with thousands of 'central' generation power stations delivering power to major load centres via high capacity power lines which were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and domestic users over the entire supply area.
The topology of the s grid was a result of the strong economies of scale: Power stations were located strategically to be close to fossil fuel reserves either the mines or wells themselves, or else close to rail, road or port supply lines. Siting of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced the structure of the emerging grid.
Nuclear power plants were sited for availability of cooling water. Finally, fossil fuel -fired power stations were initially very polluting and were sited as far as economically possible from population centres once electricity distribution networks permitted it.
By the late s, the electricity grid reached the overwhelming majority of the population of developed countries, with only outlying regional areas remaining 'off-grid'. Metering of electricity consumption was necessary on a per-user basis in order to allow appropriate billing according to the highly variable level of consumption of different users.
Because of limited data collection and processing capability during the period of growth of the grid, fixed-tariff arrangements were commonly put in place, as well as dual-tariff arrangements where night-time power was charged at a lower rate than daytime power. The motivation for dual-tariff arrangements was the lower night-time demand.
Dual tariffs made possible the use of low-cost night-time electrical power in applications such as the maintaining of 'heat banks' which served to 'smooth out' the daily demand, and reduce the number of turbines that needed to be turned off overnight, thereby improving the utilisation and profitability of the generation and transmission facilities.
The metering capabilities of the s grid meant technological limitations on the degree to which price signals could be propagated through the system. Through the s to the s, growing demand led to increasing numbers of power stations.
In some areas, supply of electricity, especially at peak times, could not keep up with this demand, resulting in poor power quality including blackoutspower cuts, and brownouts. Increasingly, electricity was depended on for industry, heating, communication, lighting, and entertainment, and consumers demanded ever higher levels of reliability.
Towards the end of the 20th century, electricity demand patterns were established: The relatively low utilisation of these peaking generators commonly, gas turbines were used due to their relatively lower capital cost and faster start-up timestogether with the necessary redundancy in the electricity grid, resulted in high costs to the electricity companies, which were passed on in the form of increased tariffs.
In the 21st century, some developing countries like China, India, and Brazil were seen as pioneers of smart grid deployment. Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally.
In parallel, growing concerns over environmental damage from fossil-fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable energy.System Operator External Incentive Plan National Grid Gas Transmission May Target audience Ofgem National Grid Gas Transmission May 2 System Operator External Incentive Plan Table of Contents Business Plan submission 1.
Find the latest business news on Wall Street, jobs and the economy, the housing market, personal finance and money investments and much more on ABC News. Electricity Transmission’s RIIO-T1 business plan 01 Introduction This document sets out National Grid Electricity Transmission’s (NGET) business plan.
This is the official website of Ministry of Power, Government of India. You can find information related Tenders, Notices, latest updates pertaining to Ministry of Power, Government of India.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of Generating stations that produce electrical power; high voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers; Distribution lines that connect individual customers.; Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site (to take advantage.
Lagos going off national grid, 46, street lights 5 key features of Ambode’s power plan ⌂ Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed.