This interpretive grid which brought together mostly strong criticism and some euphoric celebration kept for quite a while the Beat Generation at the fringes of academic scholarship. Yet, in spite of their being meant to delineate the profile of a generation whose only merit seemed to be that of opening paths for subsequent developments in American culture, biographies and studies of central figures such as Kerouac, Ginsberg, and Burroughs kept appearing.
Postmodernism is a loose alliance of intellectual perspectives which collectively pose a challenging critique of the most basic assumptions of the modern educational enterprise. What are these perspectives? What do they have to say that can open new doors for educational research and practice?
I would first like to sketch a personal view of postmodernist discourse, and then focus on its challenges to the foundations of most modern views of abstract conceptual learning.
Going beyond critique, I would like to sketch some alternative, postmodern possibilities. Modernism, like any intellectual movement, will ultimately be defined from the viewpoint of its successors.
Postmodernism is beginning this process by offering a critique, a reaction against some intellectual trends that perhaps began as early as the Renaissance, but certainly became well established by the later 19th and early 20th centuries.
This is the foundational period for the discipline of psychology and for educational theory and most of the social sciences, as well as for modern literary and fine arts criticism. Postmodernism is primarily, in its origins, a philosophical critique of the assumptions built into these disciplines in their formative years.
The critique is gradually being extended today into the natural sciences, the inner fortress of modernist assumptions about knowledge and reality. From the postmodern point-of-view, modernism is defined by its belief in objective knowledge, or at least in the possibility of objective knowledge, and by its assumption that such knowledge refers directly to an objective reality which would appear in the same way to any observer.
A further characteristic modernist assumption is that knowledge is a product of the activity of the individual mind, fashioning its ideas or mental schemas to correspond with this objective reality.
Postmodernism, on An argument in favor of writing post modernist discourses other hand, argues that what we call knowledge is a special kind of story, a text or discourse that puts together words and images in ways that seem pleasing or useful to a particular culture, or even just to some relatively powerful members of that culture.
It denies that we can have objective knowledge, because what we call knowledge has to be made with the linguistic and other meaning-making resources of a particular culture, and different cultures can see the world in very different ways, all of which "work" in their own terms.
It argues that the belief that one particular culture's view of the world is also universally "true" was a politically convenient assumption for Europe's imperial ambitions of the past, but has no firm intellectual basis.
Many postmodernists go further and point out that just as Europeans temporarily imposed their view on other cultures by force, so within European cultures, the upper social classes, and particularly middle-aged, masculinized males have dominated the natural and social sciences as well as politics and businessand so this would-be-universal worldview is even more narrowly just the viewpoint of one dominant social caste or subculture.
Postmodernism traces its roots to the movements of structuralism and its counter-reaction, post-structuralism, mainly in the the French-speaking intellectual community of the s and s. Structuralism is either the last stage of modernism or the immediate precursor of postmodernism.
The great spokesman for structuralism in this period was the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss e.
He was joined in this by Jean Piaget, who saw in the developmental movement of childen toward modern concepts of space, time, matter, and quantity a construction by the child's mind of just these same sorts of regularities in the operations it performed to make sense of the world e.
The structuralists were often inspired by the successes of modern linguistics, first in using meaning to analyze the seemingly mathematical regularities of the sound systems of language e.
Jakobson, and later in Chomsky'suse of transformations the heart of quasi-mathematical structuralism to illuminate regularities in syntactic rules. Language, culture, and thought were all to be brought at last into the modern fold of mathematically regular sciences. By codifying the enterprise of modernism, the structuralists made it a more precise target for its critics.
The critique can trace its roots, a bit mythologically, back into the Enlightenment e. Those who have been posthumously enrolled in the pedigree of postmodernism include the philosophical phenomenologists e. But the most influential, and first truly post-modern critiques were those by Michel Foucault esp.
The common denominator in all these critiques of except perhaps for those of the phenomenologists, who were recruited rather late is the analysis of discourse. It is the focus on discourse, and language, that unites structuralists and post-structuralists, but while the structuralists sought the regularities of language, the post-structuralists pointed out how language-in-use, the discourses of philosophers and poets and, yes, of psychologists and physicists, toorefuse to be contained within the patterns of order we try to impose on them.
To the extent that our discourses are our tools, if our tools are -- the modernist would say, in horror, unreliable; the postmodernist, in exaltation, self-organizing -- then the scientific ideals of the structuralists, and of modernism generally, are a chimera, an immature self-delusion we have to grow out of.
Foucault said, in effect, that it was chimerical to imagine that historians could reconstruct a real past; historical discourse is a discourse of the present, serving present ends, making sense for us today out of the archeological traces of past human activity.
Foucault undertook to write histories of discourses, including in that term not just language, but all the things people do to make sense of their worlds.Oct 20, · But given that postmodernism seems to cut off political struggles and groupings at the knees with respect to communication, collaboration, and political institutional change the bias in favor of acting via the modernist framework seems self evident.
UNIVERSITATEA BABES-BOLYAI FACULTATEA DE LITERE CRISTINA FELEA The Beat Literary Movement and the Postmodernist Breakthrough (Ph.D. Abstract) 1 Supervisor: Prof. univ. dr. VIRGIL STANCIU CLUJ, 2 3 ARGUMENT This study attempts to re-historicize, re-contextualize and re-interpret a highly debated cultural and literary phenomenon that has so far been mostly ignored by .
As a result, my argument is not to dismiss theories of cognitive psychology based on complex information processing in favor of or to romanticize another view (e.g. the traditionalists) (see.
University of Nebraska Omaha [email protected] Faculty Books and Monographs Postmodernism, “Reality” and Public Administration: A Discourse. Post-Modernism, Art Educators, and Art Education. This Digest explores aspects of Post-Modernism in art and art education.
It is argued that the adoption of Post-Modernist attitudes by art educators must result in the generation of different, but no less difficult, questions about the nature of formal education.
Support for this argument. Terms. an argument in favor of writing post modernist discourses essays. and he certainly does not attempt to return to an unsophisticated Forward Karl Adam.