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Historical foundations[ edit ] School psychology dates back to the beginning of American psychology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The field is tied to both functional and clinical psychology. School psychology actually came out of functional psychology.
School psychologists were interested in childhood behaviors, learning processes, and dysfunction with life or in the brain itself. In addition to its origins in functional psychology, school psychology is also the earliest example of clinical psychology, beginning around School psychologists were concerned with school learning and childhood behavioral problems, which largely contrasts the mental health focus of clinical psychologists.
At the conference, forty-eight participants that represented practitioners and trainers of school psychologists discussed the roles and functions of a school psychologist and the most appropriate way to train them. The agreed upon definition stated that school psychologists were psychologists who specialize in education and have specific knowledge of assessment and learning of all children.
School psychologists use this knowledge to assist school personnel in enriching the lives of all children. This knowledge is also used to help identify and work with children with exceptional needs.
A school psychologist is also expected to better the lives of all children in the school; therefore, it was determined that school psychologists should be advisors in the planning and implementation of school curriculum. It was also decided that a practicum experience be required to help facilitate experiential knowledge within the field.
Before the Thayer Conference defined school psychology, practitioners used seventy-five different professional titles.
Since a consensus was reached regarding the standards of training and major functions of a school psychologist, the public can now be assured that all school psychologists are receiving adequate information and training to become a practitioner.
It is essential that school psychologists meet the same qualifications and receive appropriate training nationwide. These essential standards were first addressed at the Thayer Conference. At the Thayer Conference some participants felt that in order to hold the title of a school psychologist an individual must have earned a doctoral degree.
APA only recognizes doctoral degrees where as NASP approves school psychology specialist and doctoral programs that meet their standards.
Social reform in the early s[ edit ] The late 19th century marked the era of social reforms directed at children. These social reforms included compulsory schooling, juvenile courts, child labor laws as well as a growth of institutions serving children.
Between andschools in both rural and urban areas created small special education classrooms for these children. Thus, school psychology was founded. Witmer opened the first psychological and child guidance clinic in at the University of Pennsylvania.
Witmer argued for special training for the experts working with exceptional children in special educational classrooms. The IQ testing movement was sweeping through the world of education after its creation in The IQ test creators, Lewis Terman and Henry Goddardheld a nativist view of intelligence, believing that intelligence was inherited and difficult if not impossible to modify in any meaningful way through education.
Rather than looking at the individual child as Witmer did, Hall focused more on the administrators, teachers and parents of exceptional children  He felt that psychology could make a contribution to the administrator system level of the application of school psychology.
Arnold Gesell[ edit ] Bridging the gap between the child study movement, clinical psychology and special education, Arnold Gesell, was the first person in the United States to officially hold the title of school psychologist, Arnold Gesell.The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) represents and supports the profession of school psychology by advancing effective practices to improve students' learning, behavior and mental health and maintaining essential standards for ethics and practice.
Stalinist purges took a heavy toll and instilled a climate of fear in the profession, as elsewhere in Soviet society. Following World War II, School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities;.
The Adler School of Professional Psychology is the oldest independent school of psychology in the country and was founded in on the principles of the . School psychology is a general practice and health service provider specialty of professional psychology.
School psychologists apply the science and practice of psychology to youth, families, learners of all ages, and the schooling process. Learn about subjects such as the definition of psychology, APA's governance, APA's founding and regional associations.
History of Clinical Psychology at The Chicago School The Chicago School’s Clinical Psychology programs train clinical psychologists in assessment, case conceptualization, and evidence-based models of psychotherapy.